Oral Microbiology

Oral microbiology is the study of microorganisms, i.e. the microbiota of the dental cavity, and their interactions between the microorganisms in the mouth or with the host. The environment in the human mouth is conducive to the growth of the specific microorganisms found there. It provides a source of water and nutrients, as well as moderate temperatures for growth. The normal microflora of the mouth attaches to the teeth and gums to survive the mechanical push from the mouth to the stomach, where acid-sensitive microorganisms are destroyed by hydrochloric acid (HCL). Anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity include: Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Leptotrichia, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium, Selenomonas, Treponema and Veillonella. Fungal genera including Candida, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Glomus, Alternaria, Penicillium and Cryptococcus are commonly found in the mouth. Among other things, bacteria congregate on hard and soft oral tissues in biofilms. Bacterial adhesion is mainly important to the oral cavity.

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