Oral Microbiology and Periodontal Diseases

Oral microbiology is a science which deals with the oral micro biota and their interactions with the host. Oral bacteria utilize the ecological niche provided by gingival epithelium and tooth surface. Constant monitoring of bacterial colonization and prevention of bacterial invasions is done by the innate host defense system. Increase in bacterial colonization in the oral cavity leads to dental plaques and then causes dental caries and periodontal disease. Lack of oral hygiene and influential factors which effect the structure of microbial community leads to Oral diseases. To identify the main cause for the onset of oral diseases it is essential to understand the oral environment and microbial interactions. Periodontology is the branch of dentistry that deals with the scientific study, diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the surrounding tissues (Gum, Alveolar mucosa, periodontal ligament, etc.) of teeth. There are various roles played by periodontium like: they resist and optimize the forces generated by speech, mastication and swallowing; adjust the structural changes associated with age and external environment by continuous regeneration and remodeling. Periodontology deals with diseases which can be classified into gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. The common symptoms of gingivitis are redness, edema and bleeding. Chronic periodontitis can cause inflammation and bone loss. These diseases can be treated with periodontal therapy which includes oral hygiene, scaling and root planning and with the usage of antimicrobials.

  • Treponema denticola
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • microaerophile Actinobacillus
  • actinomycetemcomitans

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